History of Qatar

History of Qatar

Table of contents

  1. Where is Qatar geographically located
  2. Area and population
  3. Rulers
  4. Establishment of Qatar
  5. History of Qatar
  6. 2022 World Cup stadiums in Qatar

Where is Qatar geographically located:

  • The State of Qatar is located in the northeastern coast of the Arabian Peninsula, west Asia.
  • It is bordered by the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from the south and west, the Gulf of Bahrain from the west which separates it from Bahrain, the Arabian Gulf from the north and east, and the United Arab Emirates from the southeast.

Area and population

  • Area: the area of Qatar is 11,627 square kilometers, 5.6% of its area is agricultural land.
  • Population: according to official statistics, the population in 2022 is about 2,966,046, of whom only about 320,000 people are indigenous Qatari population, and the rest are foreigners.


  • Sheikh Mohammed bin Thani (1851: 1878).
  • Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani (1878: 1913).
  • Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani (1913: 1949).
  • Sheikh Ali bin Abdullah Al Thani (1949: 1960).
  • Sheikh Ahmad bin Ali Al Thani (1960: 1972).
  • Sheikh Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani (1972: 1995).
  • Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani (1995: 2013).
  • Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani (the current ruler of Qatar since he was given the crown by his father in 2013).

Establishment of Qatar

  • Qatar was established in December 18, 1878, its National Day.
  • It was founded by Sheikh Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani, who succeeded his father in power.

History of Qatar:

Ancient History :

  • European missions (Danish, English, and French) found excavations, inscriptions, and pottery, indicating that it was inhabited since the fourth millennium BC.
  • The Greek historian “Herodotus” indicated in the fifth century BC that the Canaanite tribes, best known for the arts of navigation and maritime trade, were the first to inhabit Qatar.

Islamic era:

  • In the seventh century AD, Qatar was under the rule of the Arab “Manathira or Lakhmion,” until their king accepted Islam in the eighth year of Hijrah, and the Arabs converted to Islam with him, thus Qatar became part of the Islamic civilization.
  • According to the Arab-Islamic history, the people of Qatar excelled in sailing, and participated in preparing the first naval fleet to transport the Islamic army under the leadership of Abu Al-Ala Al-Hadrami.
  • Qatar remained subordinate to the Rightly Guided Caliphs until it was ruled by the Umayyads in the forty-fifth year of the Hijrah.
  • In the second century AH, Qatar witnessed economic prosperity during the Abbasid era.
  • The Portuguese were able to conquer Qatar in 922 AH, until Suleiman Khan I, the tenth Ottoman sultan, was able to end this colonialism in 963 AH.

Modern history :

  • Modern History of Qatar Country begins with the settling of the Arab tribes in Qatar at the beginning of the eighteenth century.
  • Then Al Thani came to Doha, where Sheikh Mohammed Al Thani was able to unite the Qatari tribes, with the help of his son Jassim, until he was able to repel the Al Khalifa raids on Qatar and defeated them in the city of Al Wakrah.
  • Sheikh Mohammed Al Thani died leaving the throne to his son Jassim Al Thani who, according to historians, was the actual founder of Qatar.

Ottoman era:

  • The Arab Gulf, including Qatar, allied with the Ottomans in order to confront the Portuguese in 1537 AD.
  • With this alliance, the Ottomans were able to control the Arabian Gulf region for 400 years.
  • Ottoman rule ended during World War I in 1914.

Qatar independence from Britain

  • Britain’s influence in the Persian Gulf Countries began with the establishment of the British India Company.
  • In 1821, the British India Company sent its cannons to the coast where the attack took place. This bombing destroyed the city and it was Britain’s first contact with Qatar.
  • On the third of September 1971, the protection treaty signed by Sheikh Abdullah bin Jassim Al Thani with Britain in 1916 was canceled and became an independent country.

2022 World Cup stadiums in Qatar :

  • Al Bayt Stadium: 68,985-capacity.
  • Al Janoub Stadium: 44,320-capacity.
  • Ahmed Bin Ali Stadium: 45,032-capacity.
  • Education City Stadium: 44,667-capacity.
  • Lusail Stadium: 88,966-capacity.
  • Al Thumama Stadium: 44,400-capacity.
  • Khalifa International Stadium: 45,857-capacity.
  • Stadium 974: 44,089-capacity.
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