The myth of the god Amun

The myth of the god Amun

The god Amun is the most important and famous of the ancient Egyptian gods and the one with the greatest popularity in the history of the Pharaohs gods, his roles varied throughout history, so they considered him the god of the sun, fertility and winds, in addition, he was merged with the god Ra and they became one god called Amun Ra.

The significance of the god Amun

The god Amun was very popular among the ancient Egyptians, as they believed that he was the creator of the universe, and he was the father of the gods. Many inscriptions were found in the tombs and on the walls of the temples that belonged to the god Amun, this was because the pharaohs had a belief that the ruler is the son of God who is represented in the form of a human being, and the ruler strength was derived from this, therefore they cared a lot about the engraving of the walls of tombs and temples, in addition, religion was the first influence on the Egyptian Empire, and in order for Queen Hatshepsut to establish her eligibility to rule the Egyptian Empire, she inscribed the story of her divine birth on the walls of her temple in Deir el-Bahari.

The figure of the god Amun and his family

The god Amun was in the form of a human man with a blue or black skin, and he wore jewelry around his neck, bracelets in his hand, and a long crown, when associated with the god Ra, he had the head of a falcon, and above his head a sun disk surrounded by a sacred snake, but he was sometimes depicted with a ram’s head.

The god Amun had a family worshiped by the Egyptians as well (the father-god Amun, his wife the goddess Mut, and their son Khonsu).

The power of God and priests

At one time, a conflict occurred between pharaohs and priests over the god Amun and the god Ra, and to eliminate these conflicts, the two gods were merged until they became one god called “Amun Ra”, thus the god Amun Ra became the most powerful god in the Egyptian state as a whole after he was worshiped as a regional cult in the city of Thebes, “currently Luxor”, in addition, the myths of the god Ra were added to the myths of Amun, which greatly increased his value as a god, and his mention became an essential thing in all Egyptian myths, and the interest in his worship increased greatly in the era of the New Kingdom, “the era of the eighteenth, nineteenth, and twenty dynasties.”

It is known that the more the powerful the god is, the more powerful his priests are, and Amun was constantly getting stronger, unlike the rest of the priests whose worship was disappearing over time, so the power of his priests increased to the extent it reached the influence and power of the Pharaoh himself.

At a time when the power of the temple of Amun increased, Egypt flourished greatly, gained more power, and grew its empire, so in order for the priests to maintain this amount of influence and power, they began to grant privileges to those who worshiped the god Amun and offered sacrifices to him, examples of these advantages were that they gave the worshippers spoils from the invasions.

This power and influence reached by the priests of Amun-Ra made Amenhotep IV, after he took over the rule of the Egyptian Empire, fearing for his position, to prohibit the worship of the gods in all of Egypt and to unify the worship of the god Aten only, as he changed his name to Akhenaten, and because of the extent of the power and influence of the priests of Amun-Ra, the worship of Aten vanished immediately, after the death of Akhenaten, and in the reign of Tutankhaten, the worship of Amun returned again, and his name was changed to Tutankhamun.

King Ramesses II also built temples to sanctify the god Amun, the most important of which is the Karnak Temple, which was considered the largest complex of temples for worshiping the god, the Luxor Temple and the Deir el-Medina Temple, which is located on the western bank of the Nile River close to the Valley of the Kings. There is also the Rams Road that connects the Karnak and Luxor temples, it is a road on which there are statues representing the god Amun.

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