Thutmose III

Thutmose III

Table of contents

  1. The life of Thutmose III
  2. The reign of Thutmose III
  3. Megiddo battle
  4. The death of King Thutmose III

Thutmose III is considered the greatest emperor in history, and the first to bear the title of emperor, as some historians called him Napoleon of Egypt, but this title is unjust to him, for Thutmose III was not defeated even once during his reign, unlike Napoleon.

The life of Thutmose III

Thutmose III is the son of King Thutmose II, the sixth pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty, but his mother was from the common people, and the reason for his assumption of power is that Hatshepsut, his stepmother and his aunt, gave birth to only two girls. Although Thutmose II had another son from a royal marriage, he found that this son would not be suitable to rule a country like Egypt, and he saw in Thutmose III all the specifications that qualified him to take over power after him, therefore he placed Thutmose III among the priests in order to be trained to prepare for the rule of Egypt, so Thutmose III spent his life among the priests and army commanders, training and learning. When his father died, the peaceful Queen Hatshepsut became his guardian, but she took advantage of the opportunity and began to give orders and take fully control following her own peaceful strategies, and when Hatshepsut died in 1457 BC, he officially became the king of Egypt.

The reign of Thutmose III

After the king-emperor ruled Egypt, he found that the peaceful strategy of Hatshepsut’s rule might expose Egypt to the greed of the surrounding countries. Indeed, Egypt began to lose areas that were under its control, and he was able, through leading about 17 military campaigns, to regain control of these areas and restore the prestige of the ancient Egyptian kingdom and expand around it. His era stood out against other by culture, given that he was an educated ruler, and the ancient Egyptians mastered during his reign the manufacture of bow and arrows, although the bow and arrow was a recent innovation at the time, he introduced a new amendment to it, not only was it made of wood, but he added other materials to it, including animal horns, in order to make it stronger and more solid, he also manufactured the regular axe and the axe with a long, flat, cutting blade, and this matter enhanced the capabilities of the armies in confronting the enemy armies with deadly blows. Thutmose III built many temples in Thebes and about 7 obelisks, one of which is now located in London and its twin in New York, he had built them in front of the Temple of the Sun in Heliopolis, and there are other obelisks in Istanbul and Rome as well, he also built the sixth and seventh gates and the ceremonial hall in the Karnak Temple.

Megiddo battle

As a result of the greed of neighboring countries in the Egyptian lands due to the peaceful rule of Hatshepsut, Thutmose III found himself in a confrontation against the alliance between the princes of Kadesh and Megiddo, he found that in order to preserve the Egyptian borders and expansions, he must speed up the confrontation on their lands, and indeed he began planning and implementation. This battle was decisive in the series of battles led by him, during which his enemies were astonished by his unexpected plans. The Egyptian emperor mobilized nearly 20,000 soldiers and quantities of weapons and supplies and left on the borders of Gaza until he reached the city of Megiddo. There were 3 roads that lead to the battlefield, two of which are long, but easy to cross and predictable by the enemies, so he decided through a short speech he delivered to cross the short, difficult and narrow path. Immediately, the army agreed and supported the decision, they began to dismantle the war chariots, carry them, and walk one after the other in a journey that lasted for more than half a day, so the armies that were waiting for them were surprised, which caused them to panic and they fled. The Egyptian army collected spoils left by about 200 commanders and their armies, including horses, chariots, gold and supplies, and Thutmose III was forced to besiege Megiddo for 7 months until they finally surrendered.

The Egyptian Emperor Thutmose III appointed a writer and a private secretary called Tatini to document the history of his military diaries on the walls of temples, therefore the details of his seventeen campaigns were fully known.

The death of King Thutmose III

The Egyptian King Thutmose III died after 54 years of ruling Egypt at the age of 82, a great funeral ceremony was held for him and he was buried in one of the first tombs to be built in the Western Valley of the Kings in Luxor.

His tomb was discovered by the French scientist Victor Lorey in 1898 AD.

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