Table of contents
Egypt is one of the world’s most prominent and important countries that people from all over the world visit for the purpose of tourism and enjoying time in all seasons throughout the year.
Plan your trip
Language: Arabic is the mother tongue in Egypt, but Egyptians are flexible as they speak different languages such as English, French, German and other different languages, but English is the most common as it is the most widespread and is spoken by many different countries.
Weather: Egypt has a distinct weather, as it is warm in winter and mild in summer, which attracts tourists to it. Rainfall begins in the winter season starting from December 21st, then spring follows on March 21st with mild weather, after which temperatures rise with the onset of summer on June 21st, then autumn winds blow on September 21st.
Essential entry documents for Egypt: Considering that Egypt is a tourist country, it facilitates entry and exit procedures for tourists from all countries of the world. You can easily book your trip via the Internet or deal with various tourism companies.
Essential entry documents for Egypt for the purpose of tourism:
- A valid passport for at least 6 months.
- Completed visa form, in addition to having two personal photos, size 4 x 6, with a white background.
- Photocopy of the first page of the passport.
- Bank statement for the last two months before applying for the visa.
- A work certificate for tourists, “except for those over fifty years old,” while for students, they must provide a university enrollment certificate.
- The travel ticket and accommodation reservation are presented upon approval of travel.
There are countries whose people may enter Egypt without a visa for a period of 3 months, including (United Arab Emirates – Kuwait – Bahrain – Saudi Arabia – Oman – Macao China – Hong Kong China).
There is also a visa that is granted free of charge to some countries with conditions, including (Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco), provided that the age of the traveler does not exceed 14 years, (Afghanistan, Sudan, Lebanon) provided that the age of the traveler is less than 16 years or more than 50 years, (Libya) provided that the age of the traveler is less than 17 years or more than 50 years, and (Jordan) for those who hold a Jordanian passport for five years.
Currency: The currency of Egypt is the Egyptian pound, and it consists of different denominations (1 pound, 5 pounds, 10 pounds, 50 pounds, 100 pounds, and 200 pounds), but you can deal in different currencies, the most common of which is the “US dollar”. Exchange machines are located everywhere through which you can exchange and transfer currencies.
Working hours in malls and shops: Working hours differ in summer and winter, as the cold weather in winter hinders movement at night, so the day is the period of activity, which makes most malls and shops have their hours ranging from 8 am to 12 pm, in contrast to the summer, the movement increases at night to avoid the heat of the day, in addition to going more to the beaches, so people go to malls and restaurants at night, therefore most malls extend their working hours, perhaps up to 24 hours.
Prices: Prices vary continuously from one period to another and from one place to another, for example:
- A bottle of water costs 5 pounds.
- Fresh juice costs10 to 20 pounds.
- Coffee costs 20 pounds.
- Lunch in an average shop costs 100 pounds.
- A day in an average hotel costs 500 pounds.
- The taxi fare costs about 100 pounds.
The most famous tourist cities in Egypt
(Cairo): It is one of the most important tourist cities in Egypt, as it is the capital of Egypt and the largest in terms of area and population. It has all the different and attractive services and tourist areas that make it an important source of tourism suitable for all age groups, among the most important landmarks and areas that tourists flock to in Cairo are:
- “The Pyramids and the Sphinx”: they are located in Giza and they are three pyramids, the largest of which is the Pyramid of Khufu, the middle one is the pyramid of Khafre, and the smallest is Menkaure, next to them is the statue of the Sphinx, which has the face of a human and the body of a lion. You can enjoy sound and light shows, take a tour inside the corridors of the pyramid, see the pharaonic tombs from the inside, and ride horses and camels, all this and more for a fee ranging from 25 to 50 dollars.
- The Egyptian Museum: is located in Tahrir Square, and is one of the most important landmarks in Cairo, as it is the largest in area. It contains many artifacts, about 150,000 artifacts that reflect the Pharaonic, Greek and Roman history of Egypt. Ticket prices range from 10 to 15 dollars.
- The Citadel of Sultan Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi is located in Mokattam, and distinguished by its remarkable Islamic design, Salah al-Din al-Ayyubi built it to fortify the country. It can be visited from 8 am to 4:30 pm, the entry cost is about $10.
- The Coptic Museum: is located next to the famous Babylon Fortress, and contains more than 16,000 artifacts. It is the largest museum of Egyptian Coptic antiquities in the world and distinguished by its remarkable stone design and construction. The entry cost is about $5.
- Museum of Islamic Art: It is located in the Bab al-Khalq area, and it is one of the most important and world’s largest Islamic museums. It is characterized by an impressive design, and it contains an area for children, the entry cost is about $5.
- Panorama October is located on Salah Salem Road, it is characterized by a different architectural building in a circular shape, and it was created in memory of the 6th of October War. You can learn more details through the models and watch the performances that are presented on the museum stage, the entry cost is $2.
- Abdeen Palace: It is one of the most important places of tourism in Egypt, it is located in the center of Cairo, and indicates the royal era in Egypt. It was built in the era of Khedive Ismail, it displays the holdings of the royal family, weapons and gifts from world presidents during their reign, the entry cost is 5 dollars.
- Cairo Tower: One of the most famous attractions for tourists and citizens, it is distinguished by its view of the Nile River, its height is 187m. It was built to symbolize the dignity and magnanimity of the Egyptians, it is mentioned that it is (the tallest in history). You can enjoy all of this while having your favorite meal or drink in a restaurant or cafe inside the tower, the entry cost is $7.
- There are also many other areas that you can visit during your trip, including “Amr ibn Al-A’as Mosque”, “Mosque of Ahmad Ibn Tulun”, “Al-Azhar Mosque”, “Al-Hussein Mosque”, “Muhammad Ali Mosque”, “Sultan Hassan Mosque”, “Mosques of Al Albayt”, “The Hanging Church”, “Al-Moez Street”, “Bab Zuweila”, “Baron Palace”, “Prince Taz Palace”, “Downtown”, “City Center”, “City Stars”, and Khan Al-Khalili.
- There are also many gardens in which you can enjoy the natural landscapes, the most important of which are “Al-Azhar Park”, “Fustat Garden”, “international garden”, “Japanese Garden”, “Al Horreya Garden”, “El Andalos Park”, “Family Park”, “Maryland Park”, and “Water garden”.
(Alexandria): Alexandria is one of the most important coastal cities due to its direct view of the Mediterranean coast. It was built by Alexander the Great, and it was the capital of Egypt for more than 1000 years. It was also called the Bride of the Mediterranean, it is the second largest city in terms of area and population after Cairo, some of the most important tourist places therein are:
- Citadel of Qaitbay: It is one of the most important tourist attractions in Alexandria, it was built by Sultan Ashraf Saif al-Din Qaitbay on the site of the ancient Lighthouse of Alexandria to be a fortress for the people and the army, the entry cost is $2.
- Library of Alexandria: It includes many different cultures, arts and civilizations, there are thousands of books, and many halls in which various activities are practiced, the cost of entry is 5 dollars.
- Serapeum of Alexandria: was built in the Roman era in honor of Emperor Diocletian, it is distinguished by its strength and height, which reaches 20.75 meters, the entry cost is $5.
- The Catacombs of Kom El Shoqafa: is located in the Kom El Shoqafa area, it is a complex of Pharaonic, Roman and Greek arts. It contains many tombs and ancient statues, the entry cost is $5.
- The Roman Theatre: is located in the Kom El-Dikka area in Alexandria, it was discovered during the search for the tomb of Alexander the Great. It can host about 600 people, the entry cost is $5.
- Alexandria National Museum: It belonged to one of the wealthy people of Alexandria, then the state took over and restored it. It was built in the Italian style, and includes various artifacts of up to 1,800 pieces from the ancient and modern eras, the entry cost is 5 dollars.
- There are also many other places in Alexandria that can be visited, such as “Sidi Morsi Abu al-Abbas Mosque”, “Al-Qaed Ibrahim Mosque”, “Temple of the Black Head”, “Abu Qir Sunken cities”, “Graeco Roman Museum”, “Royal Jewelry Museum”, “Museum of Marine Biology”, “Museum of Fine Arts”, “Cavafy Museum”, “Elmontaza Garden”, “Al Shalalat Park”, “Antoniades Garden’s”, “Alexandria Corniche”, “Stanly Bridge”, “Yacht Trip in Anfushi”, “Montazah Water Sports Club”, “Africano Park”, and “the Cathedral of St. Mark”.
(Luxor): It was called “Thebes” in ancient times, it was the capital of Egypt for more than 1,500 years due to its distinguished geographical location. Luxor is one of the most important ancient tourist cities, as it includes two-thirds of the world’s monuments, it is surrounded by the Nile River from everywhere, so tourists visit it from different countries of the world, and among the most important tourist attractions in Luxor are:
- Karnak Temple: It is one of the most famous tourist attractions as it is one of the oldest temples known to history, it includes 134 columns and they are the largest in the world. The most important characteristic of the temple is its entrance, which is the famous Rams Road, it holds sound and light shows, the entry cost is about 10 to 15 dollars.
- Luxor Temple: It was built by Amenhotep III in the era of the Middle Kingdom. The building of the temple is huge, which is represented by its large gate and the statue of Ramses II sitting on both sides of the entrance. The entry cost is $5.
- Deir el-Bahari Temple: It is the same as the Hatshepsut Temple, it is the jewel of the Luxor temples. It is the largest of the funerary temples in Luxor, and it is distinguished by its different and distinctive design from the rest of the other temples, the entry cost is $ 3.
- Valley of the Kings: It includes about 64 tombs, the most important of which is the tomb of King Tutankhamun, which is a world heritage site according to its classification by UNESCO, the entry cost is $5.
- Valley of the Queens: It is located on the western mainland in the far south, and was built in the same style as the Valley of the Kings. Among the most famous tombs therein is the tomb of the beautiful Queen Nefertari, the entry cost is $3.
- Mortuary Temple of Amenhotep III: It is located on the western mainland in the Kom Al-Hitan area, and it is called the Temple of Millions of Years, it witnessed many natural disasters, leaving only the Colossi of Memnon, the entry cost is $3.
- Luxor Museum: It is one of the most important attractions that must be visited, as it includes 376 artifacts, it is located on the Corniche Road, the entry cost is $5.
- Among the places that you can enjoy visiting also are the “Ramesseum Temple”, “Medinet Habu”, “Mummification Museum”, “Deir el-Medina”, “Tombs of the Nobles”, “Mortuary Temple of Seti I”, “Howard Carter’s House”, “Luxor Corniche”, “Luxor Markets”, “Banana Island”, “Abydos Temple”, “The Temple of Hathor at Dendera”, “Horus Temple in Edfu”, and “Khnum Temple in Esna”.
(Aswan): It is located in the south of Egypt, it is famous for the abundance of tourist places therein, you can enjoy riding a felucca and wandering around its islands, what distinguishes it most is its weather and bright sun, some of its most prominent landmarks are:
- Temples of Abu Simbel: there are currently located west of Lake Nasser, which is the world’s largest artificial lake, they were built by King Ramses II, whose large temple is topped by four large statues of the king. One of the most important features of the temple is the sun perpendicular to the face of the statue of the king, and what is surprising is that the day of the perpendicularity coincides with the day of the birth and coronation of the king, while the small temple is for Queen Nefertari, wife of King Ramesses, its design is similar to the big temple, the entry cost is $10.
- Temple of Philae: Your journey of enjoyment begins before you arrive at the temple, where you ride the boats on the Nile to the temple that was built for the worshipers of the god Isis, the Greek, Roman and Byzantine eras left their mark on its walls, as you can also enjoy watching many huge columns and murals therein, the entry cost is $6.
- The High Dam: It is one of the most important tourist attractions in Aswan, its importance is due to its protection of the country from the floods of the Nile River and its protection from the drought that the country was exposed to, as it kept the flood waters, it is also considered one of the most important sources of electricity generation, the entry cost is $5.
- The “Unfinished Obelisk”: It is located in the southern part of the Egyptian quarries, it was given this name because it was not completed, probably due to the appearance of a crack during the process of carving it, and some scholars suggested that it dates back to the era of Queen Hatshepsut, the entry cost is 3 dollars.
- Nubian Museum: It was built with the surrounding environmental rocks by the Egyptian architect Mahmoud al-Hakim, the building was distinguished as a mixture of different civilizations, the entry cost is $5.
- There are also many other shrines and temples, including “Kom Ombo Temple”, “Elephantine Island”, “Nubian Village”, “Khnum Temple”, “Kalabsha Temple”, “Mausoleum of the Aga Khan”, “Monastery of Anba Samaan”, “Nile Museum”, “Suhail Island”, “Qubbet el-Hawa”, “El Nabatat Island”, “Aswan Corniche”, and “El-Souk Street”.
Sharm El-Sheikh: It is one of the most important tourist cities in Egypt, as it annually hosts a large number of tourists, it includes many villages, resorts and distinctive tourist attractions, including:
- Ras Mohammed Reserve: It is considered one of the most beautiful parts of the earth, as it is characterized by coral reefs, which makes it one of the best places for diving, it is also characterized by the presence of sea and wild creatures and rare plants, the entry cost is 3 dollars.
- Nabq Reserve: It provides you with a different vibe that combines wild and desert life, by enjoying watching rare wild animals, diving trips, mountaineering and camping in the desert, the entry cost is $10.
- Mount Saint Catherine: If you are a fan of adventure and mountaineering, you must visit it, as it is the highest mountain peak in Egypt and is located next to Mount Tur and Mount Safsafa, by visiting them, you can enjoy the picturesque natural views.
- Naama Bay: It is located in Al-Salam Beach in the center of Sharm El-Sheikh, one of the most important and oldest tourist places in Sharm El-Sheikh, as it has many attractions, restaurants and cafes, and is close to high-end hotels.
- Aqua Blue Water Park: It is located in the Umm Sid plateau area, it includes various water games and 44 waterfalls, the most famous of which are the Black Hole and the Kamikaze. There are also many swimming pools, including those suitable for children under 12 years old.
- The city of Sharm El-Sheikh is characterized by the presence of many distinctive and different places to visit, including the “Coloured Canyon”, “The Blue Hole”, “Al-Salam Mosque”, “Sahaba mosque”, “Dolphin and Crocodile Show”, “Alf Leila wa Leila”, “SOHO Square”, “Hollywood Sharm El Sheikh”, “Ghibli Car Race”, “Glass Boat Tours”, “The Stable”, “Abug Galum Nature Reserve”, “Sharm El Sheikh Safari”, “Shark Bay”, “El Salam Park”, “Umm Sid Plateau and Beach”, “Saint Catherine’s Monastery”, “The Heavenly Cathedral”, “The Coptic Church”, “Genena Mall”, “Mercato Mall”, “El-Souk El-Kadeem”, “Sharm Papyrus Museum”, and “The Monument and Museum of King Tutankhamun”.
Hurghada: The capital of magic and beauty, as it has a moderate and distinctive weather, it enables you to practice many different activities, and includes many tourist places, including:
- El Gouna: It is one of the most famous and beautiful resorts located in Hurghada, as it is distinguished by the presence of Al-Zaytoun and Mangroovy beaches, golf courses, and many cafes and restaurants. It includes more than 14 hotels, a small airport for private planes, and a well-equipped hospital, therefore many tourists visit it to enjoy various activities.
- Sahl Hasheesh: It contains 6 first-class tourist resorts, in addition to the international yacht marina, various sports centers, horse riding in the club, and a large cinema complex, you can watch the landscape while walking on the bridge and enjoy diving trips to watch the Pharaonic city underwater, as for golf lovers, it includes the largest golf courses.
- The Sand Museum: It contains 42 sand statues of international, ancient and modern Egyptian figures, which were carved by many artists of different nationalities around the world, which makes it one of the most important museums in the world. It includes children’s amusement parks, lounges, and restaurants to provide the needs of its visitors, the entry cost is $3.
- Among the places that you can enjoy visiting during your trip are “Hurghada Marine Museum”, “Mini Egypt Park Museum”, “El-Dahar Mosque”, “El Saqala District”, “Al-Kawthar District”, “Cleopatra Center”, “Cenzo Mall”, “Esplanade Mall”, “Abu Minqar Island”, “Magawish Island”, “Giftun Island”, and “Makadi Water World”.
North Coast: You can make your trip more special by visiting the North Coast, practicing various activities and visiting tourist places, the most famous of which are “fishing beaches”, “Zahran City Park”, “Marseilia Aqua Park”, “Al Alamein Military Museum”, “Sherif Fish Restaurant”, “El-Hamam City”, “Dami Oasis”, and “North Coast Malls”.
(Marsa Alam): Marsa Alam is located on the western coast of the Red Sea, southeast of Egypt, it is characterized by its picturesque nature and the tourist places that you can visit there:
- Wadi el Gemal National Park: It is one of the largest reserves in the Red Sea, you can enjoy watching various marine and terrestrial creatures therein.
- Al Nayzak Lake: The indigenous people called it by this name because they believed that a meteor had separated it from the sea, and became Al Nayzak Lake, its water is turquoise.
- El Qulan Area: You can enjoy the natural environment, which is characterized by the presence of mangrove trees, as well as the Qulan tree, which has a distinctive view.
- Dolphin House “Samadai Reserve”: It is one of the most important reserves in which there are a large number of dolphins, you can enjoy a cruise, dive with dolphins, and eat your favorite meal for up to $25.
- Abu Dabbab Beach: It is characterized by the presence of turtles and the marine Dugong, at a cost of up to $5.
history of Egypt
History of Pharaonic Egypt
The Pharaonic era began in Egypt about 3,000 years ago, 3100 BC to 323 BC, when Alexander the Great entered Egypt, and the history of Pharaonic Egypt was classified into three eras (ancient, middle and modern), which were ruled by 31 different families.
In the Pharaonic era, Egypt showed interest in architecture, literature, music, clothing and decorations.
The ancient era which includes the first and second dynasties: One of the most famous kings of this era is (King Menes), as he was able to unite the upper and lower Egypt, thus he was able to achieve political unity in this era, he was a strong foundation for the state later, and succeeded in establishing the first dynasty in the Pharaonic era.
The old era which includes the third to the sixth dynasties: The old era was characterized by strength, stability, security, and an abundance of resources. The old era was called the era of the pyramid builders because its kings built the huge pyramids Khufu, Khafre, and Menkaure. Egypt was at the peak of its prosperity at this time in terms of science, culture, and economy, this powerful era ended because of the first social revolution.
The era of the first transition, which includes dynasties from the seventh to the tenth: The era of transition was known as an era of decay and weakness, because the kings lost control of the country, and insecurity prevailed in the country at this time.
The Middle era, which includes the Eleventh and Twelfth Dynasties, (the least powerful periods): The Middle era witnessed economic prosperity due to the presence of many rulers who helped to develop the country again. King Mentuhotep II was able to unify the country again, security and stability prevailed during his rule, and the country rose economically, and King Amenemhat I, the founder of the 12th dynasty, moved the capital from Thebes to Itjtawy to be close to the delta to expand agricultural activities.
The era of the second transition which includes the thirteenth to the seventeenth Dynasties: During this era, the Hyksos managed to occupy Egypt until the princes of Thebes succeeded, after the struggle, in reclaiming Egypt once again under the leadership of King Ahmose I and expelling the Hyksos from the country.
The modern era which includes the eighteenth to the twentieth dynasties: After the expulsion of the Hyksos from the country, the kings succeeded in developing Egypt again, as its kings conquered Palestine and Syria until they reached the Euphrates River to the fourth cataract in Sudan in the south. There were also many kings who revived the state, such as Queen Hatshepsut, who ruled Egypt for about 20 years, during her reign, trade missions were sent to Puntland, and she built the greatest architectural monuments such as the Deir el-Bahari temple, and King Akhenaten, who started a religious revolution calling for monotheism and the worship of the god Aten.
The late era which includes dynasties from the twenty-first to the thirtieth: This era was the beginning of the last decline and the end of the Pharaonic history in Egypt, starting from the 21st Dynasty, whose kings weakened and the influence of the Libyans increased in it until one of them managed to control Egypt, till the 27th Dynasty, when Egypt was seized by the Persians, then in the 28th Dynasty, an Egyptian king, king Amyrtaeus, succeeded in recovering it from the Persians, in the 30th Dynasty, it was seized again by the Persians, but their rule did not last for long, as Alexander the Great succeeded in entering Egypt.
Roman History of Egypt
Egypt was a strong country during the era of the first Ptolemies, Rome was the strongest country and seized most of the countries and states surrounding the Mediterranean. Rome’s relation with the Ptolemaic state in Egypt was a relation of friendship and trade exchange because it was a strong country, Rome began to interfere politically in the affairs of Egypt as the greater power of the world until the Ptolemaic state in Egypt became a weak state, as it interfered in political-military affairs until it took control of it and Egypt became a Roman state in 30 BC. At that time, the ruler of Rome was killed, Julius, and a civil war broke out in Rome because of their disagreement over assuming power, then it was agreed to divide the Roman Empire into two leaders of Julius Caesar, Anthony and Octavius, so Anthony ruled the countries and states in the east, and Octavius took over the rule of the countries in the West. At that time, Egypt was ruled by Cleopatra VII, then she learned that Anthony took over the rule of countries and states in the east, including Egypt, so she sent him an invitation to visit Egypt, indeed, he accepted the invitation, and there he admired Cleopatra and married her. After that, the relationship between Octavius and Anthony began to become tense, as a dispute occurred between them because of Anthony’s marriage to Cleopatra VII and granting her and her children of some of the territories he had conquered in the East, because of his celebration of his victories in Egypt and not in Rome, a naval battle between Octavius against Antony and his wife Cleopatra VII occurred, it was called the Battle of Actium, which ended with the victory of Octavius, after which Egypt became a Roman state in 30 BC.
Civilization in Egypt during Roman Rule
- Political life: Egypt was subject to the mandate of Octavius directly, the Romans prevented the Egyptians from participating in ruling the country, and the Romans put military garrisons to defend the country, Egypt was divided into three sections (Lower Egypt, Middle Egypt and Upper Egypt), the Romans used the Greek language as an official language in the country and used the Latin language in the army.
- Social life: Egyptian society was divided during Roman rule into four classes:
First class: (Romans) The Romans were few in number and held the highest positions.
Second class: (Greeks) The Greeks received some privileges, including exemption from some taxes.
Third class: (Jews) The Jews also got some privileges because they were close to the Romans.
The fourth class: (Egyptians) The Romans mistreated the Egyptians, which led to the Egyptians hating them, as they staged revolutions such as the shepherds and peasants revolution.
- Economic life (agriculture, industry, and trade): The Romans’ economic policy in Egypt was a form of economic independence, as Egypt became a farm of wheat that provide for Rome to distribute it to its population in order to gain their support. They took care of irrigation affairs, repairing irrigation systems, clearing canals and drains, and rebuilding bridges. The Romans did not follow the system of monopoly in industry, like the era of the Ptolemies, the city of Alexandria became the most important commercial center in the eastern Mediterranean due to the prosperity that prevailed in the Roman Empire.
- Cultural and Scientific Life: The city of Alexandria was in the second place after Rome in the dissemination of science and culture.
- Architecture: The Romans showed interest in civilization, as they built gates, triumphal arches, public baths, theaters, and temples in the Greco-Roman and Egyptian style.
Islamic history of Egypt
The Islamic conquest of Egypt took place in 641 by Muslims led by Amr ibn al-Aas, and Egypt was ruled by the Arab caliphs till the year 1517, despite the Crusades that were invading Egypt at this time, passing through the Umayyad caliphate, the Abbasid caliphate, the Tulunid caliphate, the Ikhshidid caliphate, and the Fatimid caliphate for nearly 900 years. The city of Cairo was built by the Fatimids, which became the capital, it is one of the greatest cities in the world in the Middle Kingdom.
In 1517, the Ottomans took over, thus Egypt became an Ottoman state, but the administrative power remained in the hands of the Mamluks, which led to an increase in their influence and authority in the state, which led to the weakness and deterioration of the economy, and Egypt witnessed difficult time, until Egypt was invaded by the French led by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1798 for 3 years, the campaign ended in 1801 with the withdrawal of France from Egypt, which resulted in instability and tension in Egypt and the struggle over power between the Mamluks, the Ottomans and the English, which paved the way for Egypt’s independence in 1805.
Modern history of Egypt
After the withdrawal of the French campaign from Egypt in 1801, the situation of the country was unstable, in addition to the conflicts and disputes that occurred between the Mamluks, the Ottomans, and the British because of their desire to control Egypt. When the Ottoman Empire began to restore the rule of Egypt, the Egyptian people resisted and staged revolutions against the Ottoman governors and Mamluk leaders because of the imposition of taxes on them. One of the most important revolutions that the Egyptians carried out was the “people’s revolution” in March 1804, Muhammad Ali, the commander of the Albanian army in Egypt, joined the scholars and sheikhs and promised them to reduce taxes, which made the people’s leaders of the scholars and the captains of the sects agree in the court house that Muhammad Ali assumed power, Egypt began during the reign of Muhammad Ali to lose its strength and became threatened by Britain, France and Turkey.
In 1882, Britain and France explicitly announced their desire to dissolve the House of Representatives, and France began to take advantage of the dispute that occurred in Alexandria between a foreigner and an Egyptian, and as a result, a great battle took place in which a number of foreigners were killed, in 1956, Britain, France and Israel attacked Egypt, and in 1952 Egypt managed to defeat the enemy and established the Republic of Egypt under the leadership of King Farouk. Since this revolution, Egypt remained independent until Israel attacked Egypt, but in 1973 Egypt was able to defeat the Israeli aggression.
In 1978, the peace treaty was concluded between Egypt and Israel, which was signed during the reign of President Sadat, after the assassination of Sadat in 1981 by army officers while he was attending a military parade, President Muhammad Hosni Mubarak assumed power, whose rule lasted 29 years and achieved great success, however, during his rule, Egypt witnessed social unrest and political corruption, which led to a revolution, which resulted him to step down from the presidency, then Muhammad Morsi, who was affiliated with the Muslim Brotherhood party, took over and then was dismissed, and after that President Abdel Fattah Al-Sisi took over and he has been the president of Egypt since 2014 until this time.
Egypt is characterized as a country of safety and security, its people reflect generosity and flexibility in dealing with different nationalities, 60% of its population speaks English and other sub-languages such as German, French, Italian, and other languages that help them communicate with tourists from different countries of the world. Before visiting Egypt, you must choose the places you want to visit in order to save your time and know the easiest ways to move, book hotels and know the working hours. It is preferable to have a local currency with you for ease of dealing and not being subjected to exploitation and theft, You can deal in large hotels and restaurants with bank cards, there are places where you can buy souvenirs for your friends and family like Khan Al-Khalili, and Al-Moez Street. Using public transportation instead of renting a private car, renting an apartment or a room to live and eating in popular restaurants instead of luxury hotels will save you expenses and make your trip inexpensive. You can ask about places or things you want to buy, as Egyptians naturally love to help.
We recommend developing a different tourist program that includes more than one city to enjoy different experiences, for example, to learn more about the Pharaonic civilization, we advise you to go to Giza, Luxor and Aswan, and to enjoy the beaches and recreational and therapeutic places, you can visit Sharm el-Sheikh, Hurghada and the North coast. It is distinctive that you can visit more than one city because of the ease of movement and the proximity of cities, you must also choose the appropriate season and weather for you, as Egypt is distinguished by its different weather throughout the year, one of the best times of the year is from March to October.
Nile River: Where you can enjoy Nile cruises and see various tourist attractions on a boat or felucca in the Nile, which extends in various cities of Egypt, the most important of which are Luxor and Aswan, where the High Dam is located, which is the largest source of electricity generation in Egypt.
Red Sea: The Red Sea is located between Africa and Asia at the entrance to the water of the Indian Ocean, its length is about 2200 km, its width is about 330 km, and its maximum depth is 2211 meters. People from all over the world flock to it because of the purity of its water and because it is considered one of the warmest seas in the world, with an average temperature of 18 to 30 degrees Celsius, so it has become a famous place for diving and snorkeling. It is considered one of the saltiest seas in the world, it is characterized by the diversity of marine organisms in it, as it includes rare coral reefs around the world, about 1200 different fish species, 44 species of deep water fish such as sharks, and 12 species of rare fish around the world.
Mediterranean Sea: The Mediterranean Sea is located between three continents, Asia, Africa, and Europe, therefore, it is called the Mediterranean Sea, its length is about 3450 km, and its width is 1600 km. It is one of the most important seas in the world, as it was the first way to help cultural exchange between countries because it was an important route for merchants and travelers through ancient times, which allowed trade and cultural exchange between the peoples of the region, it is visited by about a third of the world’s tourists, and about half of the world heritage is found in the countries bordering on its banks, it contributes greatly to cooling the weather in the summer.
Places you should visit in Egypt
When you visit Egypt, do not miss the different tourist places, you must visit the pyramids and the Sphinx, enjoy taking different photos and go to the streets of ancient Egypt such as Al-Mu’izz and Al-Hussein Street and buying various souvenirs, you can spend a day in amusement parks such as Dream Park or Magic Land and enjoy the various games. You can go to Alexandria, visit Qaitbay Castle, walk on the Alexandria Corniche, enjoy its distinctive weather and watch the sea, go to Luxor and Aswan, learn about the ancient Egyptian civilization, see the Pharaonic monuments that have no equal in the world, and take a tour in Hurghada, Sharm El-Sheikh and the North Coast, enjoy the sea, practice diving and watch coral reefs and rare fish, there are many tourist places in Egypt, the details of which are mentioned above.
In Egypt, there are many different means of transportation, the most famous of which is public transportation, such as:
- The Metro: It is located in the cities of Cairo and Giza, it is one of the fast and inexpensive means of transportation.
- Microbus: It is the most popular and easiest means of transportation, as it is found everywhere, and its cost varies based on the distance.
- Taxi: It is one of the most widespread and available means, many people resort to it to save time and avoid crowding in public transportation.
- Using Uber or Careem cars: by downloading their applications on the phone, whether from the App store or Play store, and specifying the destination you want to go to, the cost is according to the distance.
- Rent a car from a specialized company: which is suitable for families, as it facilitates transportation for them.
Most famous hotels in Egypt
The most famous hotels in Cairo: Kempinski Nile Hotel Cairo, Cairo Marriott and Omar Khayyam Casino, Al-Masa Hotel, Dusit Thani Lake View Cairo, Tulip Golden Plaza Hotel, Cairo City Stars Staybridge Hotel, Fairmont Nile City, St. Regis, The Triumph Hotel, and Le Passage.
Alexandria’s most famous hotels: Four Seasons Alexandria, Hilton Alexandria Corniche, Romance Alexandria Hotel, The Steigenberger Hotel, Cecil Hotel, Hilton Alexandria King’s Ranch, Radisson Blu Alexandria, Tolip Hotel Alexandria, Helnan Palestine Hotel, Cherry Maryski Hotel, and Alexander the Great Hotel.
The most famous hotels in Sharm El Sheikh: Savoy Hotel, Rixos Hotels, Renaissance Golden View Beach Resort, Steigenberger Alcazar, Albatros Aqua Park Sharm, Eden Rock Hotel, Concorde El Salam Hotel, and Stella Di Mare Beach Hotel & Spa.
The most famous hotels in Hurghada: Premier Le Reve Hotel & Spa, Muntajae Jaz Aquamarine, Titanic Beach Spa & Aqua Park, Maraki Resort, Steigenberger AlDAU Hotel, Elaria Hotel, Steigenberger Pure Lifestyle, Tropitel Sahl Hasheesh Resort, and Sunrise Mamlouk Palace Resort.
The most famous hotels in Aswan: Mövenpick Resort, Sofitel Legend Old Cataract Hotel, Benben By Dhara, PHilae Hotel, Nubian Farm Hotel & Restaurant, Tolip Aswan Hotel, Nubian Holiday House Aswan, and Hapi Hotel.
The most famous hotels in Luxor: Sonesta St. George Hotel, Steigenberger Nile Palace Hotel, Hilton Resort & Spa, Jolie Ville Hotel & Spa Kings Island Luxor, Steigenberger Resort Achti, Nefertiti Hotel, Iberotel Hotel, and Mara House Luxor.
The most famous Egyptian food
- Ful and Taameya: are among the most famous Egyptian foods, most people eat them on a daily basis, they have a distinctive taste, as you can serve Ful with hot oil, tahini, or tomatoes with a dish of the remarkable Egyptian Taameya.
- Egyptian Koshari: It is one of the meals that you can eat as a lunch meal, as it contains a variety of nutrients and consists of lentils, pasta, chickpeas with sauce and fried onions, you can add Duqqa as desired, which consists of vinegar, garlic and spices, which adds a distinctive taste to Koshari, hot sauce can be added for spicy lovers.
- Liver and sausage sandwiches and Hawawshi: they are served in the most famous restaurants, as well as in street carts, they have a distinctive taste that makes you eat more than one and return to eat them again.
- Alqunbula: It is one of the most famous Egyptian sweet dishes and it is given this name because it contains hearty ingredients and consists of Basbousah, banana, cream, mango, strawberry, Kunafa, Curd rice, ice cream, and cocktail juice, which makes it very creamy, so eating a plate and finishing it to the end is difficult.
- Mulukhiyah: It is one of the most important and famous Egyptian dishes, it is a green vegetable that is finely chopped, and some ingredients such as ghee, garlic and coriander are added to it, it is served as a side dish.
- Tripe and Mombar: they are a very hearty meal, prepared by cooking tripe in a tomato sauce, and served in casserole, while Mombar is sticks stuffed with a mixture of rice, tomatoes, onions and coriander and fried in oil.
- Feteer meshaltet: It is dough with local ghee and served with honey and cheese.
- Alfasikh: It is salted fish served with onions, lemon and bread
- Egyptian Fattah with meat: It consists of rice, sauce and bread with Duqqa, and meat is placed on top of it.
- El Mahshi: It is one of the most famous meals, and it has different types, such as stuffed cabbage, grape leaves, peppers, tomatoes, and eggplant, it is a mixture of rice, onions, sauces, and spices, stuffed in vegetables and served in the most famous restaurants.
you can learn about other meals through this article (Egyptian food).